Lontras, botos, ariranhas e peixes-boi podem ajudar a conservar toda a biodiversidade aquática da Amazônia

O plano nacional de conservação de mamíferos aquáticos da região amazônica ameaçados de extinção, aprovado no dia 21/01 pelo Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBio) estabelece metas e propostas para a conservação de lontras, ariranhas, botos cor-de-rosa, botos-cinza (tucuxis), botos-do-araguaia e peixes-boi, seis mamíferos aquáticos conhecidos da região. O documento tem o potencial de ajudar a proteger a fauna e flora aquáticas de toda a bacia amazônica.

Nesse novo plano, são estabelecidas cinco metas a serem buscadas pelos pesquisadores e conservacionistas no país:

•          Redução dos conflitos entre mamíferos aquáticos e atividades pesqueiras;

•          Redução da pressão de caça sobre os mamíferos aquáticos;

•          Promoção da integridade dos habitats críticos para os mamíferos aquáticos;

•          Aumento do conhecimento sobre a dinâmica populacional, ecologia, interações com humanos e saúde dos mamíferos aquáticos;

•          Promoção da educação ambiental e do engajamento da sociedade voltados à conservação de mamíferos aquáticos, influenciando políticas públicas.

As metas deverão ser postas em prática nos próximos cinco anos, objetivando melhoras nos números das espécies e redução das mortes acidentais, pela caça e por conflitos com seres humanos. As seis espécies podem ser consideradas “guarda-chuvas” da biodiversidade local, por serem espécies (excetuando-se o peixe-boi) de topo de cadeia – todo o ecossistema no qual estão inseridas é influenciado pela presença desses animais. Quando se realiza a conservação deles, se está conservando muitas outras espécies que compartilham o mesmo ambiente.

Um plano muito mais focado

“O ICMBio resolveu compartimentalizar melhor nesse plano. ”, ressalta a Dra. Miriam Marmontel, oceanógrafa e pesquisadora do Instituto Mamirauá que há mais de 30 anos trabalha com mamíferos aquáticos. “Eu fiquei muito satisfeita, o plano está muito focado. ”

A pesquisadora representou o Instituto Mamirauá, unidade de conservação do Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações, na reunião que discutiu e projetou o novo plano no início de 2018, reunindo diversos representantes de instituições como o ICMBio, o Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação da Biodiversidade Amazônica (CEPAM), o Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Amazônicas (INPA), o Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, o Centro de Mamíferos Aquáticos (CMA), o WWF-Brasil, o Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA), o Ministério de Minas e Energia (MME) e a Secretaria Estadual do Meio Ambiente do Amazonas (SEMA), além de outros especialistas, em áreas diversas, da sociedade civil.

“Discutimos melhor as ameaças e as ações que queríamos fazer. ”, explica Miriam. “É um plano de ação, então tem que ser estratégico, direcionado para manejo e conservação. O objetivo principal é melhorar a conservação, reduzindo a mortalidade. A visão de futuro é para 30 anos, com monitorias semestrais e avaliações anuais. ”

O posicionamento do governo em relação à conservação dessas espécies deve facilitar a captação dos recursos necessários para a execução das metas em editais e junto à sociedade civil. “O plano, estando publicado, é uma alavanca para apresentarmos projetos a essas fontes de financiamento. ”, revela Miriam.

“No âmbito da pesquisa, é importante focarmos no que vale diretamente para a conservação: sabermos a tabela de vida, reprodução, idade, mortalidade. Esses fatores são muito importantes para descobrirmos a dinâmica populacional e projetarmos como uma espécie pode evoluir no futuro, se ela vai sobreviver ou não, considerando as ameaças às quais elas estão sujeitas. ”, afirma a pesquisadora. “As pessoas que fazem parte desse grupo são bem engajadas. Nesse sentido, temos muito para avançar. As espécies precisam disso. ”

Texto: Bernardo Oliveira

Fonte: Instituto Mamirauá

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